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“Utawala bora unalipa.” Haya ndiyo maneno ya Bw. Bertie Ahern, Waziri Mkuu wa Ireland, kwenye hotuba yake kwa wananchi wa Ireland ambao wanaishi hapa Tanzania. Soma hotuba nzima kwa kubonyeza hapa.

Pia, kwenye hotuba hiyo aliwasimulia wageni kuhusu mkutano wake na Rais Kikwete.

I commended the President for the very strong statements he has made on the need to tackle corruption. He acted decisively, openly and publicly following the recent independent international audit on the Bank of Tanzania.

His message to the people of Tanzania, to fellow African countries and to the wider international community is clear: Corruption has no place in a democratic society.

Lakini Bw. Bertie alisahau kuwaambia kuwa wapinzani pale Ireland wamedai kuwa yeye hastahili kuwa Waziri Mkuu kwa sababu chombo kimoja cha dola kinamchunguza kwa kutolipa kodi ya mapato wakati alipokuwa Waziri wa…………. Fedha.

Chanzo cha uchunguzi huo ni uchunguzi mwingine unaohusu mipango ya ardhi. Uchunguzi, unaojulikana kama Mahon Tribunal, umegundua kuwa Bw. Bertie alipokea malipo ya thamani ya zaidi ya Euro60,000 kutoka kwa wafanyabiashara mbalimbali kati ya mwaka 1993-94. Bertie ameshindwa kueleza kwanini walimpa pesa kiasi hicho wakati alikuwa Waziri wa Fedha.  Sasa mamlaka ya kodi ya Ireland wanamchunguza pia kujua kwanini hakulipa kodi ya mapato kwenye malipo hayo. Maelezo zaidi yanapatikana hapa.

Zaidi ya hapo, Bw. Bertie alifagilia umuhimu wa uhuru wa vyombo vya habari alipozungumza na wahariri wa magazeti mbalimbali ya Tanzania. Lakini nilishangaa Bw. Bertie alikataa kujibu swali lolote kuhusu madai ya wapinzani wake wakati wa ziara yake.

Mbona wafadhili wanatufundisha mambo ya utawala bora wakati wao wenyewe wanachunguzwa?

Duh! mambo ya usimamizi hayana mwisho, au siyo?

Tumesikia vigelegele na makofi hivi karibuni. Sio ya harusi ama sherehe ya aina yeyote. Wala. Tumyaesikia wafadhili kuipongeza serikali ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania kwa kuweka wazi matokeo ya audit External Payments Account nawa wizi wa zaidi ya dollar milioni mia moja kutoka Benki Kuu ya Tanzania . Juzi, Daudi Balali, gavana mwenyewe alifukuzwa.

Mark Green, balozi wa Marekani hapa Tanzania alisema: “We believe that the government’s decision to press forward with an investigation of irregularities at the bank is indicative of President Kikwete’s resolve to combat corruption”. Serikali ya Uingereza pia, waliunga mikono na Bw. Green.

Tunajua kuwa audit ya Ernst and Young sio audit ya kwanza. Lakini uchunguzi huo si uchunguzi wa kwanza bali ni uchunguzi wa pili……. Endelea kusoma.

IMF iko mstara wa mbele wa kero hii ya BoT. Nimeshaandika kuhusu IMF na BOT. Bonyeza hapa ukitaka kujikumbusha. Kwenye nakala ile, niliunganisha na Country Report No. 07/138. Pata nakala yako hapa tena. Ni bure.

Leo mimi nimeisoma tena, kujikumbusha skendo hiyo. Ilivyoandikwa kwenye ripoti ya IMF, mambo yafuatayo yalitokea:

  1. Mwaka 2006, maodita wa Benki Kuu ya Tanzania (Deloitte and Touche, kama sijakosea), waligundua malipo ya thamani ya USD30.7 milioni ambayo siyo sahihi.
  2. Mkataba ya maodita ulivunjwa na serikali
  3. Akina-IMF walipata taarifa kutoka kwa maodita wa Benki Kuu kuhusu malipo hayo.
  4. Akina-IMF waliwasiliana na serikali juu ya kero hiyo kwa ngazi za juu, hadi Rais na Waziri wa Fedha
  5. Serikali ya Tanzania iliwaambia IMF kuwa malipo haya yalitokea External Payments Account
  6. Februari 2007, Waziri wa Fedha aliahidi kuchunguza malipo husika kwa njia ya ‘audit’ mpya.
  7. Zaidi ya ‘audit’, serikali ilianzisha unchunguzi mwingine wa malipo. Huu umeanzishwa kabla ya Februari 2007, kama Waziri wa Fedha alivyoandika kwenye barua yake kwa Rodrigo Rato wa IMF, ambaye ni appendiz kwenye Country Report ya IMF.

Juzi, tulipewa matokeo machache (sio yote) ya audit ya Ernst and Young (au Massawe Ernst and Young? Sina uhakika…..). Tulipewa majina ya makampuni mbalimbali ambayo walipokea mabilioni kutoka kwa External Payments Account ya Benki Kuu. Tumehakikishiwa kuwa serikali itaunda timu ya kuchunguza mambo hayo. Timu, wakiwemo Inspekta Jenerali, na mkurugenzi wa Takukuru, Itaongozwa na mwanasheria mkuu.

Vipi kuhusu uchunguzi wa kwanza, je? Je, walishindwa kupata majina ya kampuni zilizopokea fedha hizo mpaka odit ya hivi karibuni?

Pia, kwanini wafadhili wanaipongeza serikali kwa kuunda uchunguzi sasa? Si wanajua kuwa serikali iliuunda uchunguzi karibu na mwaka moja uliopita?

Kwa maoni yangu, kuna mashirika machache yasiyo ya serikali ambayo yanajitahidi kuleta mawazo mapya na vitendo vipya hapa Tanzania. Na HakiElimu ni mojawapo. Wamesema mambo mengi ya ukweli mpaka walipigwa marufuku….. Heshima kwao. Wapo kwenye mstari wa mbele katika kulinda haki za wananchi na kutuhamasisha.

Lakini, hivi karibuni, karibu kila mara mimi huwasha luninga yangu, huona nembo yao. “The Week in Perspective” kwenye TVT, “City Sounds” kwenye EATV, “Kipima Joto” cha ITV, kipindi kile kipya cha kutoka Dodoma kwenye TVT, juma mosi mchana….. nembo yao inaonekana karibu kila siku.

Nilitembelea tovuti yao kupata maelezo zaidi, nikapata taarifa yao ya 2005, ambaye inapatikana hapa. Nilishangaa kujua kiasi HakiElimu inashawishi vyombo vya habari. Kwa mwaka 2005, walifadhili zaidi ya taarifa 200 kwenye magazeti, luninga na redio. Pamoja na hizo, walifadhili “Sema Usikike” (ITV), “Mgongano wa Mawazo” (ITV), “Elimu Maalum” (RTD) na “Sauti ya Watu” (TVT).

Upande wa kazi yao kwa vyombo vya habari, lengo la HakiElimu ni

The voices of ordinary people regarding education and democracy are investigated and independently reported, and this has led to greater awareness, accountability and public action.

Mimi nakubaliana na lengo hili kw asilimia mia moja. Pia, nimefurahi kuwa HakiElimu wanajitahidi kutusogeza mbele. Wasiwasi wangu ni kwamba, athari yao kwa vyombo vya habari ni kubwa sana mpaka itawezekana kupunguza uhuru wa vyombo vya habari na siyo kujenga uhuru wake. Demokrasia na uhuru wa ukweli unategemea sauti mbalimbali na maoni tofauti. Naogopa kuwa sekta ya uandishi wa habari hapa Tanzania unategemea sana wafadhili kutoka nje, kama serikali na ile sekta ya “NGOs”.

Tusisahau kuwa karibu fedha zote za HakiElimu zinatoka mashirika ya kimataifa yasiyo ya serikali na serikali za nchi za nje. Ili kupata hela, kwanza inabidi wawashawishi wafadhili hawa na kukubaliana na malengo ya wafadhili. Na waandishi wa habari, je? Ili kupata hela, kwanaza inabidi wawashawishi mashirika kama HakiElimu kuwa wanakubaliana na malengo yao. Na katika uhusiano wa kimataifa (hata katika maisha kwa ujumla) matajiri wana ushawishi mkubwa zaidi kuliko wanyonge.

Je wakati wa ukoloni tulikuwa na vyombo huru vya habari? Je, wakati wa Nyerere, tulikuwa na vyombo huru vya habari? Siku hizi, je, tunasikia sauti za nani?

Incentive is a basic concept in economics, and indeed in life. Incentives can be negative or positive. Reaching your sales targets, if you are a vodacom sales manager, may lead to a bonus. Favouring a particular supplier in return for a ten percent kickback may lead to loss of your job (assuming you are caught – it is so common).

So how do incentives operate in the relationship between Tanzania and its donors? With the last post, we saw that the IMF was happy to recommend that the final tranche of the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (worth over two million Special Drawing Rights) be paid despite the, ahem, “alleged impropriety” of up to USD250 million going missing from the External Arrears Account of the Bank of Tanzania.

Similarly, the government of Norway recently announced that it would release TZS50 Billion in Direct Budget Support direct to the Tanzanian treasury. This equates to just under USD40 million or 225,000 Norwegian Kroner. This is about 35 percent greater than the amount they committed to giving in October of last year.

So, you make a certain commitment to support the Tanzanian government. You then discover that there is likely to have been theft of Tanzanian people’s money on a grand scale by officials of that same government, and the results of the promised inquiry are a long way away. You then decide to go ahead with your donation, and increase it by 35 percent. You then say

The disbursement was contingent upon Tanzania’s observation of the underlying principles of the agreement between Norway and Tanzania. The fundamental principles include good governance, fight against corruption, democracy, macroeconomic stability, and commitment to implementation of Mkukuta

Contingent on the fight against corruption?

Sikutaka kuandika chochote kuhusu skendo ya Benki Kuu ya Tanzania inayohusu “external arrears payments”. Mambo mengi yameshaandikwa.

Juzi nilitembelea tovuti ya IMF kwa ajili ya kujua maoni yao kuhusu Benki Kuu na skendo hiyo. Ukibonyeza hapa, utapata nakala yako ya IMF Country Report No. 07/138: karatasi tisini na saba. Hii ni ripoti ya mwisho ya Poverty Reduction Growth Facility na Policy Support Instrument ya miaka mitatu ijayo. Napendekeza usome. Kuna mambo mengi ndani.

Kusema ukweli, nilishtushwa na ripoti hiyo. Bila shaka wananchi wa Tanzania wamesikitika sana na allegations kuhusu Benki Kuu. Wanaomba uwajibikaji. Je, vyombo vya fedha vya kimataifa vinasemaje? Kwanza, inaonekana kuwa wanaona mambo haya kuwa muhimu, lakini kiasi tu, siyo sana.

Nilishangaa zaidi mahusiano kati ya maafisa ya IMF na wenzao kwa Benki Kuu ya Tanzania. Ripoti hiyo ya IMF, inatueleza nini? Yaani, nani husimamia wasimamizi?

Kwa kweli, akina-IMF hawana mengi ya kusema. Hamna cha kusema mpaka kufikia ukarasa 81 ya 97. Wafanyakazi wa IMF, wanatuambia kuwa walipata taarifa ya “an alleged impropriety” baada ya kumaliza ripoti yao ya mwisho kuhusu PRGF.

Following issuance of the staff report for Tanzania’s sixth and final PRGF review, and request for a three year PSI, the staff learned of an alleged impropriety involving payments to a third party by the BoT. The allegation raised questions regarding program implementation, capacity to repay the Fund, and the consistency of the BoT’s practices with the Fund’s safeguard’s policy, including the BoT’s own commitments following the December 2003 Safeguards Assessment. The alleged impropriety has also given rise to reputational risks for both the fund and the BoT. As a result, Board consideration of the report, scheduled for December 6, was postponed and the PRGF was extended to mid-August 2007 to all the staff additional time to seek from the authorities (i)clarification of the nature of the alleged impropriety; and (ii) reasonable assurances that no systemic problem exists that give rise to safeguards concerns. The staff has also reached understanding on the adoption of remedial actions.

Mambo haya ya malipo yasiyo sahihi, yalichunguzwa na audit firm moja, ambayo, ilifukuzwa na serikali baada ya kueleza mambo haya kwa IMF. Baada ya hapo, tunaambiwa kuwa IMF iliwasiliana na serikali ya Tanzania, mpaka Ikulu. Inaonekana kuwa IMF walikubali maelezo yote ya serikali.

“Remedial actions” hizo, zinaelezwa zaidi ndani ya barua kutoka Mh Zakia Hamdani Meghji, Waziri wa Fedha kwa Mkurugenzi wa IMF, Rodrigo de Rato ya tarehe 8 Februari 2007. Kwa ufupi, serikali inaamini kuwa skendo ni “an isolated occurence”, wameanza uchunguzi wao, na pia, watapata audit firm kutoka nje kuchunguza zaidi.

Mambo haya tunayafahamu, lakini, nilishtushwa zaidi kusoma Statement by Peter Gakunu, Executive Director for United Republic of Tanzania and Joseph L. Masawe, Senior Advisor to the Executive Director”, ambayo ni appendix kwenye ripoti hiyo ya IMF.

Gakunu na Masawe wanatuambia kuwa

Without prejudging the outcome of the audit, my authorities believe that this is an isolated incident and do [sic] not pose reputational or safeguard risks at the BOT. The BOT has been the first institution in Tanzania to become IFRS compliant and remains so.

Yaani, bila kusibiri matokeo ya uchunguzi, wanataka kutoa maoni yao kuwa mambo yanaendelea vizuri.

Mwishoni, Gakunu na Masawe ni akinanani? Gakunu yupo IMF, baada ya kuwa afisa wa ngazi ya juu katika Wizara wa Fedha ya Kenya. Na Masawe? Yupo IMF pia. Kabla ya kuanza kwa IMF, alikuwa Deputy Director wa Bank of Tanzania – akiwajibika kwa na Daudi Balali, Gavana wa Benki Kuu ya Tanzania.

 

Mambo ya uwajibikaji hayana mwisho. Watanzania pale Uingereza, abiria wa basi huko Mikumi wote wanaomba uwajibikaji. Sasa wafadhili kutoka nje, wanataka kuwasaidia vyombo vya habari kuomba uwajibikaji. Mambo kibao yatakuwepo – mafunzo, skolashipu, exchange visits na misaada.

Serikali za Uswisi, Ireland, UK, Denmark, Netherlands na Canada wameamua kuandaa Tanzania Media Fund (haina jina la kiswahili). Mfumo huu unategemea kuanza rasmi baada ya miezi kadhaa. Utakuwa na lengo hili:

The overall objective of the programme is to increase the quantity of quality public (PJ) and investigative (IJ) products that better inform the public, contribute to debate and thereby increase public demand for greater accountability across Tanzania

Terms of Reference kwa shirika italoendesha mfumo huu ziko hapa, bonyeza tu. Maelezo zaidi yanapatikana huku na huko.

Kwa ufupi, Tanzania Media Fund itatoa msaada kwa namna tatu: mafunzo kwa waandishi wa habari; kufadhili uandishi wa uchunguzi, au ‘investigative journalism’ na kuandaa Legal Defence Fund

Kwa upande wa mafunzo, sina tatizo – ni muhimu, yanahitajika.

Lakini kwa kufadhili uandishi wa uchunguzi, nina wasiwasi. Swali la kwanza: je, miaka ya hivi karibuni, kiasi cha uandishi wa aina hii umepungua au umeongezeka?

Kwa uzoefu wangu, kwa takriban miaka kumi, uandishi wa uchunguzi umeongezeka bila shaka (kama gini co-efficient, lakini hili ni suala lingine).

Nitoe mifano michache ya mwaka huu:

  • Ujenzi wa Benki Kuu Ya Tanzania (Mwananchi)
  • Commercial Debt Scandal ya Benki Kuu ya Tanzania (kwanza kwenye Mwananchi, na jana kwenye Daily News)
  • Quality Plaza (This Day)
  • Biashara ya Rais Mkapa alipokuwa Ikulu (This Day/Kulikoni)

Miaka kumi iliyopita, usingesoma habari za aina ile. Inaonyesha kwamba vyombo vya habari vya Tanzania vinakua, vinaendelea na uandishi wa aina hii, bila kusaidiwa na wafadhili kutoka nje.

Terms of Reference zinaeleza kuwa wafadhili wanategemea kuona:

At least x no. of individuals and x no. of agencies funded annually to carry out pieces of journalism resulting in a minimum of x no. of investigative and pubic journalism pieces published and broadcast.

Tufikirie mradi huu zaidi…. Mwandishi wa habari mmoja akitaka kuchunguza skendo fulani, itabidi aandike proposal ya kuomba fedha. Ataituma kwa Tanzania Media Fund. Maafisa wao wataisoma, wataipeleka kwa ‘Steering Committee’. Watakubali au hawatakubali. Je, ukitaka kuchunguza suala la kigogo fulani na shughuli zake, utasambaza hapa na pale kwa namna hii?

Je, akisikia kuwa kuna skendo inayohusu wafadhili, atachunguza? Au, atakataa kwa sababu anawategemea kwa mafunzo na msaada?

Swali la mwisho: je, vyombo vya habari vya Tanzania vitegemee wafidhili kutoka Ulaya?

Ukitaka kufikiria zaidi mambo ya uandishi wa uchunguzi, soma hii, inayohusu ukosefu wa uandishi wa aina hii China. Ukisoma uandishi wa mwaka jana wa Ndesanjo Macha, utatafakari zaidi.